Transnacionalismo desde abajo y multiculturalismo desde arriba: perspectivas de ciudadanía para la incorporación migrante en Chicago

Transnationalism From Below and Multiculturalism From Above: Citizenship Perspectives for Immigrant Incorporation in Chicago

Estefanía Cruz Lera

Resumen

Entre los debates contemporáneos sobre las dinámicas de los migrantes, la reestructuración de la ciudadanía es un tema fundamental. Las preguntas que guían esta investigación son: ¿de qué forma están reestructurando a la ciudadanía las dinámicas locales de los inmigrantes? ¿Por qué las perspectivas sobre ciudadanía de los migrantes y de los gobiernos de acogida tienden a ser contrastantes? y ¿qué consecuencias tiene esto para la incorporación migrante? En este artículo se analizan las perspectivas ciudadanas de los migrantes y del gobierno local en Chicago, contrastando una propuesta transnacional surgida ‘desde abajo’ y un proyecto multicultural propuesto ‘desde arriba’.

Palabras clave: ciudadanía, incorporación, transnacionalismo, multiculturalismo, Chicago.


Abstract

The restructuring of citizenship has become a fundamental topic in the midst of contemporary debates surrounding the dynamics of immigrants. The research questions guiding this paper are: how are immigrant local dynamics reshaping citizenship? Why is the approach of immigrants and that of local governments towards citizenship so sharply contrasting? And, what are the consequences of these contrasts for immigrant incorporation? This paper presents a case study of the citizenship perspectives of Chicago’s immigrants and of the city's government, contrasting the transnational approach emerged from below with a multicultural project posed from above.

Keywords: citizenship, incorporation, transnationalism, multiculturalism, Chicago.



PDF


PDF (Inglés)



Referencias

Abdallah-Pretceille, M. (2006). Interculturalism as a Paradigm for Thinking about Diversity. Intercultural Education, 17(5), 475-483. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980601065764

Bakker, M. (2011). Mexican Migration, Transnationalism, and the Re-scaling of Citizenship in North America. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 34(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2010.482159

Banda, M. y Zurita, M. (2005). Latino Immigrant Civic Engagement in the Chicago Region. Latino Studies, 1-13.

Bauböck, R. (2003). Towards a Political Theory of Migrant Trasnationalism. International Migration Review, 37(3), 700-723.

Bloemraad, I. (2004). Who Claims Dual Citizenship? The Limits of Postnationalism, the Possibilities of Transnationalism and the Persistence of Traditional Citizenship. International Migration Review, 38(2), 389-426.

Bloemraad, I., Korteweg, A. y Yurdakul, G. (2008). Citizenship and Immigration: Multiculturalism, Assimilation, and Challenges to the Nation-State. Annual Review of Sociology, 34(1), 153-179. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134608

Bodirsky, K. (2012). The Intercultural Alternative to Multiculturalism and its Limits: Paper presented at the Workshop “Uncertainties in the Crisis of Multiculturalism”, EASA conference 2012, Paris.

Boruchoff, J., Gzesh, S. R., Pallares, A., Vonderlack-Navarro, R. y Fox, J. (2010). Latino Immigants in the Windy City: New Trends in Civic Engagement, Reports on Latino Immigrant Civic Engagement (6).

Bouchard, G. (2011). What is Interculturalism? McGill Law Journal, 56(2), 437-486. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Brubaker, R. (2010). Migration, Membership, and the Modern Nation-State: Internal and External Dimensions of the Politics of Belonging. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 41(1), 61-78. https://doi.org/10.1162/jinh.2010.41.1.61

Cantle, T. (2014). National Identity, Plurality and Interculturalism. The Political Quarterly, 85(3), 312-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.12101

De Graauw, E. (2015). Polyglot Bureaucracies: Nonprofit Advocacy to Create Inclusive City Governments. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 13(2), 156-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2015.1030809

De Lucas, J. (1999). Derechos de las minorías en una sociedad multicultural. Madrid: Cuadernos de Derecho Judicial.

Dorantes, R. y Zatarain, F. (2007). …y nos vinimos de mojados: Cultura Mexicana en Chicago. México: Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México.

Faist, T. (2000). Transnationalization in international migration: implications for the study of citizenship and culture. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(2), 189-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/014198700329024

Fox, J. (2005). Unpacking “Transnational Citizenship”. Annual Review of Political. Science, 8, 171-201. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.012003.104851

Gilbert, L. (2014). Reconceiving Citizenship: Noncitizen Voting in New York City Municipal Elections as a Case Study in Immigrant Integration and Local Governance. Migration and Human Security, 2(3), 223-250. https://doi.org/10.1177/233150241400200304

Giménez-Romero, C. (2001). Modelos de Mediación y su aplicación en mediación intercultural. Migraciones. Publicación del Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones, (10), 59-110.

Ginieniewicz, J. (2010). Identity Politics and Political Representation of Immigrants: The Perceptions of Latin Americans in Toronto. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 8(3), 261-283. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2010.501280

Glick Schiller, N. y Çağlar, A. (2009). Towards a Comparative Theory of Locality in Migration Studies: Migrant Incorporation and City Scale. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(2), 177-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830802586179

Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (June 29, 2017). Mexican Lawful Immigrants Among the Least Likely to Become U.S. Citizens, Pew Research Center. Recuperado de: https://www.pewhispanic.org/2017/06/29/mexican-lawful-immigrants-among-leastlikely-to-become-u-s-citizens/

Halfmann, J. (1998). Citizenship universalism, migration and the risks of exclusion. British Journal of Sociology, 49(4), 513-533. https://doi.org/10.2307/591286

Harvey, D. (2006). The Right to the City. Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 7(3), 321-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698010500268189

Hepburn, E. (2011). “Citizens of the region”: Party conceptions of regional citizenship and immigrant integration. European Journal of Political Research, 50(4), 504-529. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2010.01940.x

Joppke, C. (1996). Multiculturalism and Immigration: A comparison of the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Theory and Society, 25(4), 449-500. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00160674

Kerr, B. J., McDaniel, P. y Guinan, M. (2014). Reimagining the Midwest: Immigration Initiatives and the Capacity of Local Leadership. The Chicago Council on Global Affairs/American Immigration Council. [online] Recuperado de: https://www.thechicagocouncil.org/sites/default/files/Local_Initiatives_0.pdf

Koopmans, R. y Statham, P. (1999). Challenging the Liberal Nation‐State? Postnationalism, Multiculturalism, and the Collective Claims Making of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Britain and Germany. American Journal of Sociology, 105(3), 652-696. https://doi.org/10.1086/210357

Kymlicka, W. (2007). Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. Oxford: OUP Oxford.

Kymlicka, W. (2003). La política vernácula: nacionalismo, multiculturalismo y ciudadanía. Barcelona: Paidós Ibérica.

Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lee, J. y Baker, B. (2017). Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2014. USDHS. [online] Recuperado de https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/LPR%20Population%20Estimates%20January%202014.pdf

Levitt, P. (2001). Transnational migration: taking stock and future directions. Global Networks, 1(3), 195-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0374.00013

Martiniello, M. y Lafleur, J. (2008). Towards a transatlantic dialogue in the study of immigrant political transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(4), 645-663.

Mendoza, C. y Bada, X. (2013). Estrategias organizativas y prácticas cívicas binacionales de asociaciones de mexicanos en Chicago: Una perspectiva transnacional desde el lugar. Migraciones Internacionales, 7(1), 35-67.

Michelson, M. R. (2001). Political Trust Among Chicago Latinos. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23(3), 323-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/0735-2166.00092

Newman, B. J., Hartman, T. K. y Taber, C. S. (2014). Social Dominance and the Cultural Politics of Immigration. Political Psychology, 35(2), 165-186. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12047

Østergaard-Nielsen, E. (2011). Codevelopment and citizenship: the nexus between policies on local migrant incorporation and migrant transnational practices in Spain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419871003777791

Østergaard-Nielsen, E. (2003). The Politics of Migrants’ Transnational Political Practices, International Migration Review, 37(3), 760-786.

Paik, A. N. (2017). Abolitionist futures and the US sanctuary movement. Race & Class, 59(2), 1-23, DOI: 10.1177/0306396817717858.

Pallares, A. y Flores-González, N. (2010). ¡Marcha!: Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement, Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Paral, R. (2014). Illinois’ undocumented immigrant population: A summary of recent research, Illinois Coalition for Immigrant/Refugee Rights, Chicago. [online] Recuperado de: https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/aec63a_4ee78f0e8fde4de2a0b0c0f859a8855e.pdf

Pew Hispanic Center (2016). Estimates of U.S. unauthorized immigrant population, by metro area. Recuperado de: https://www.pewhispanic.org/interactives/unauthorizedimmigrants-by-metro-area-table/

Portes, A. (1997). Globalization from Below: The Rise of Transnational Communities. W.P. Smith and R.P. Korczenwicz, Latin America in the World Economy, Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 27(1), 151-168

Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. y Landot, P. (2003). La globalización desde abajo: Transnacionalismo inmigrante y desarrollo. México: Flacso.

Reitz, J. G. (2009). Assessing Multiculturalism as a Behavioural Theory. In Multiculturalism and Social Cohesion, Netherlands, Springer, 1-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9958-8_1

Rivera-Salgado, G., Bada, X. y Escala-Rabadán, L. (2005). Mexican Migrant Civic and Political Participation in the US: The Case of HTAs in LA and Chicago. Mexican Migrant Social and Civic Participation in the United States, Norteamérica, 1(02), 1-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2006.02.100

Sartori, G. (2001). La sociedad multiétnica. Pluralismo, multiculturalismo y extranjeros, Madrid: Taurus.

Siemiatycki, M. (2011). Governing Immigrant City: Immigrant Political Representation in Toronto. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(9), 1214-1234. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764211407840

Soysal, Y. N. (1994). Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sternberg, C. y Anderson, M. (2014). Contestation and the local trajectories of neoliberal urban governance in Chicago’s Bronzeville and Pilsen. Urban Studies, 51(15), 3198-3214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014532143

Suro, R. (1998). Strangers Among Us: How Latino Immigration is Transforming America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Thomas, A., Kinast, E.U. y Schroll-Machl, S. (2010). Handbook of Intercultural Communication and Cooperation, Vol 1. Basics and Areas of Application. Oakville: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Van Leeuwen, B. (2010). Dealing with Urban Diversity: Promises and Challenges of City Life for Intercultural Citizenship. Political Theory, 38(5), 631-657. https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591710372869

Wilson, W. J. y Taub, R. P. (2008). There Goes the Neighborhood: Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Belonging and the politics of belonging. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(3), 197-214, DOI: 10.1080/00313220600769331

Zamudio Grave, P. (2004). Lazos cambiantes: comunidad y adherencias sociales de migrantes mexicanos en Chicago. Migraciones Internacionales, 2(1), 84-106.

Zapata-Barrero, R. (2003). La ciudadanía en contextos de multiculturalidad: procesos de cambios de paradigmas. In Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez, 37, 173-199.

Zapata-Barrero, R. y Pinyol Jiménez, G. (2013). Manual para el diseño de políticas interculturales, Barcelona: GRITTIM-UPF Policy Series.



EL COLEGIO DE LA FRONTERA NORTE
Todos los contenidos publicados en esta revista se encuentran bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.
Licencia de Creative Commons