El transnacionalismo y la movilización colectiva de la comunidad maya en Júpiter, Florida Ambigüedades en la identidad transnacional y la religión vivida

Timothy J. Steigenga, S. Irene Palma, Carol L. Girón S.

Idioma original:

Resumen

Algunos elementos de la religión vivida ayudan a los inmigrantes mayas en Júpiter,
Florida, Estados Unidos, a reconstruir simbólica y prácticamente la noción de
“hogar”, dando un sentido de identidad colectiva, lo cual ha facilitado la acción
comunitaria. La homogeneidad étnica y lingüística, la comunidad de origen común y la fuerza de una sola tradición religiosa, combinados con bajos niveles de aceptación cultural/social de los inmigrantes en Júpiter da como resultado lo que Alejandro Portes llama una etnicidad reactiva. Pero la relación entre identidad y acción colectiva es mucho más compleja y ambigua. Cuando los factores contextuales no son favorables, divisiones y otras barreras obstaculizan la creación de una identidad colectiva, lo cual limita la posibilidad de la acción comunitaria. Además, los mismos factores que crean un sentido de identidad colectiva a un nivel específico (de aldeas, iglesias y grupos étnicos) pueden probablemente llevar a divisiones que inhiben la acción colectiva en un ámbito más general (a niveles de identidad maya, hispana o inmigrante). La etnicidad reactiva puede afectar de manera negativa el grado de aceptación social en la comunidad de destino y también el desarrollo de los conflictos interétnicos.

Abstract

Certain elements of lived religion assist Jacaltec Mayan immigrants in Jupiter to symbolically and practically recreate conceptions of ‘home,’ thereby providing a sense of aggregate identity that has facilitated collective action. A common sending community, ethnic and linguistic homogeneity, and the dominance of a single religious tradition combine with low levels of social/cultural acceptance of Jupiter’s immigrants to produce what Alejandro Portes has called reactive ethnicity. But the relationship between identity and collective action is much more complex and ambiguous. When contextual factors are not favorable, divisions and other barriers to collective identity formation limit the possibility for collective action and expose differences within immigrant conceptions of home. Furthermore, the very factors that provide a sense of collective identity at the level of village, church, and ethnic group are likely to lead to divisions that inhibit collective action at an expanded level of identity (Mayan, Hispanic, or immigrant). Thus, reactive ethnicity can negatively affect the social acceptance of immigrants in receiving communities and add to levels of inter-ethnic conflict.

Palabras clave: transnacional; religión vivida; etnicidad reactiva; Júpiter; Florida; Jacaltenango, Guatemala



Texto completo:

Idioma original


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Fecha de recepción: 4 de julio de 2007

Fecha de aceptación: 7 de febrero de 2008



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