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US-Mexico Border Militarization and Violence: Dispossession and Disorganization of Undocumented Laboring Classes from Puebla, Mexico

La militarización y violencia en la frontera de Estados Unidos y México: Despojo de las clases trabajadoras de indocumentados de Puebla, México

Alison Elizabeth LEE

Idioma original:

Resumen

Entrevistas con migrantes retornados en Puebla, México, antes y después del endurecimiento de la frontera de mediados de la década de 2000, revelan un mayor riesgo de detención y violencia contra los migrantes por parte de los coyotes y criminales en la frontera, reduciendo la migración circular. Los cuerpos ilegales están desposeídos de seguridad física y bienestar psicológico para crear valor en múltiples procesos de acumulación: dentro del proceso de producción como mano de obra vulnerable, así como mercancías para los coyotes y los centros privados de detención. La violencia disciplina a los migrantes para las relaciones laborales más explotadoras de los programas de trabajadores temporales.

Palabras clave: violencia; ilegalidad; coyotaje; Estados Unidos; México


Abstract

Interviews with return migrants in Puebla, Mexico before and after the massive border build-up of the mid-2000s reveal how increased border enforcement entailed greater risks of arrest and potentiated the violence migrants experienced at the hands of smugglers and criminals, reducing circular migration. Dispossessed of physical security and psychological well-being, illegal mobile bodies create value for multiple accumulation processes: at the point of production as vulnerable workers, as well as commodities for trafficking organizations and private detention centers. The violence inflicted on undocumented border crossers disciplines them for the more exploitative labor relations oftemporary worker programs.

Keywords: violence; illegality; human smuggling; Unites States; Mexico



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