Approaches to International Migration, Immigrant Women, and Identity

Ana Bravo Moreno

Resumen

Abstract

This article attempts to demonstrate that each approach to immigration, immigrant women, and identity that appeared in the British literature from the 1970s through the 1990s was an attempt to create a theory to account for differences and similarities within the diverse immigrant groups in the United Kingdom. However, serious gaps exist in these approaches in that they do not address what constitutes culture for the immigrants themselves or how their construction of culture differs from what they perceive to be the culture of the country to which they migrate. This poses difficulties in understanding the meaning immigrants attribute to their cultural and gender identities and how these identities may evolve in the host country. This article argues that while it is important not to ignore the power of political and economic forces and history as contributors to women's formation of identities, it is at least as important to think about identity as an individual appropriation and a creation of individual meanings. There is a need to understand the intersection between culture, social structure, and biography in order to recognize differences in the shaping of cultural and gender identities.

 

Resumen

 

Este articulo intenta demostrar que los enfoques sobre la inmigración, las mujeres inmigrantes y la identidad, que aparecieron en la literatura británica entre los años setenta y noventa, fueron un intento de crear una teoría para explicar las diferencias y similitudes entre los diversos grupos inmigrantes en el Reina Unido. Sin embargo, existen huecos importantes en estos enfoques, al no tomar en cuenta lo que constituye la cultura para los inmigrantes mismos, o como su construcción de cultura difiere de la que ellas perciben en el país de destino. Esto crea dificultades para entender el significado que los inmigrantes atribuyen a su identidad cultural y de genera, y la manera como estas identidades pueden evolucionar en el país receptor. Este articulo argumenta que, mientras es importante no ignorar el poder de las fuerzas políticas y económicas y la historia como factores para la formación de las identidades de la mujeres, también es importante pensar en la identidad como una apropiación y creación individual de significados. Es necesario entender la intersección entre cultura, estructura social y biografía para reconocer diferencias en la formación de identidades culturales y de genera.

Keywords: international migration; women's studies; race; post-modernism; United Kingdom



PDF (Inglés)



Referencias

Adkins, Lisa, and Diana Leonard. 1996. "Young People, Kin-Work and the Gendered Constitution of Ethnicity." Institute of Education, University of London. Unpublished paper.

Allen, Sheila. 1980. "Perhaps a Seventh Person." Women s Studies International Quarterly 3:325-38.

Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities. London: Verso.

Andizian, Sossie. 1986. "Women's Roles in Organizing Symbolic Life: Algerian Female Immigrants in France." In Rita James Simon and Caroline B. Brettell, eds., International Migration: The Female Experience. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld.

Ang-Lygate, Magdalene. 1996. "Women Who Move: Experiences of Diaspora." In Mary Maynard and June Purvis, eds., New Frontiers in Women's Studies: Knowledge, Identity, and Nationalism. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 151-63.

Anthias, Floya. 1982. "Ethnicity and Class among Greek-Cypriot Migrants: A Study in the Conceptualisation of Ethnicity." Ph.D. Thesis, University of London.

---. 1990. "Race and Class Revisited: Conceptualising Race and Racisms." Sociological Review 38:19-42.

---,. 1992. Ethnicity, Class, Gender, and Migration: Greek Cypriots in Britain. Aldershot, England: Avebury.

Anthias, Floya, and Nira Yuval-Davis. 1992. Racialized Boundaries: Racism and the Community. London: Routledge.

Appleyard, Reginald, and Anna Amera. 1986. "Postwar Immigration of Greek Women to Australia: A Longitudinal Study." In Rita James Simon and Caroline B. Bettell, eds., International Migration: The Female Experience. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld, pp. 255-65.

Ballard, R. 1992. "New Clothes for the Emperor? The Conceptual Nakedness of the Race Relations Industry in Britain." New Community 18:481-92.

Barth, Frederic. 1969. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. The Social Organization of Cultural Difference. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Beyer, Gunther. 1976. "Migration from the Mediterranean Basin to Central, West and North Europe." In Franco Angeli, ed., L 'Emigrazione del bacino mediterraneo verso l'Europa industrializzata. Milan: Istituto di Demografia dell'Universita di Roma.

Bhachu, Parminder. 1993. "Identities Constructed and Reconstructed: Representations of Asian Women in Britain." In Gina Buijs, ed., Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities. Oxford: Berg Publishers, Ltd., pp. 99-117.

Böhning, Wolf Rudiger. 1972. The Migration of Workers in the United Kingdom and the European Community. London: The Institute of Race Relations, Oxford University Press.

Boyd, Monica. 1986. "Immigrant Women in Canada." In Rita James Simon and Caroline B. Brettell, eds., International Migration: The Female Experience. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld, pp. 45-61.

Brah, Avtar. 1996. "'Race' and 'Culture' in the Gendering of Labor Markets: Young South Asian Muslim Women and the Labor Market." Cartographies of Diaspora. Contesting Identities. London: Routledge, pp. 128-151.

---. 1993. "Re-framing Europe: En-gendered Racisms, Ethnicities and Nationalisms in Contemporary Western Europe." in Feminist Review 45:9-29.

---.. 1996. Cartographies of Diaspora. Contesting Identities. London: Routledge. Breakwell, Glynis M. 1992. Social Psychology of identity and the Self-Concept. London: Surrey University Press.

---. 1986. Coping with Threatened Identities. London: Methuen.

---. 1982. We Have Already Cried Many Tears: The Stories of Three

Portuguese Migrant Women. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Books, Incorporated.

British Census. 1961. Occupation and Nationality Tables.

Buechler, H. C., and Buechler J. M. 1981. Carmen: The Autobiography of a Spanish Galician Woman. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Books, Inc.

Buechler, Judith Maria Hess. 1975. "The Eurogallegas: Female Spanish Migration." In Dana Raphael, ed., Being Female: Reproduction, Power, and Change: Reproduction, Power, and Change. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Buijs, Gina. 1993. Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities. Oxford: Berg.

Castells, Manuel. 1975. The New Structure of Dependence and the Political Processes of Social Change in Latin America. Los Angeles: University of California.

Castles, Stephen, and Godula Kosack. 1973. Immigrant Workers and Class Structure in Western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.

---. 1985. Immigrant Workers and Class Structure in Western Europe. 2d. edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, Anthony P ., ed. 1986. Symbolising Boundaries. Identity and Diversity in British Cultures. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Delphy, Christine, and Diana Leonard. 1992. Familiar Exploitation: A New Analysis of Marriage in Contemporary Western Societies. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.

Díaz-Andreu, Marita. 1996. "Constructing Identities through Culture: The Past in the Forging of Europe." In Paul Graves-Brown, Sian Jones, and Clive Gamble, eds., Cultural Identity and Archaeology: The Construction of European Communities. London: Routledge, pp. 48-61.

Dumon, W. A. 1981. "The Situation of Migrant Women Workers." International Migration 19 (1-2):190-209.

Eastmond, Marita. 1993. "Reconstructing Life: Chilean Refugee Women and the Dilemmas of Exile." In Gina Buijs, ed., Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities. Oxford: Berg.

Field, Sally. 1987. "The Changing Nature of Racial Discrimination." New Community 14:118-32.

Foner, Nancy. 1979. Jamaica Farewell: Jamaican Migrants in London. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Frankenberg, Ruth. 1993. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. London: Routledge.

Fraser, Nancy, and Linda J. Nicholson. 1990. "Social Criticism without Philosophy: An Encounter between Feminism and Postmodernism." In Linda J. Nicholson, ed., Feminism and Postmodernism. London: Routledge, pp. 19-38.

Gabaccia, Donna. 1994. From the Other Side: Women, Gender and Immigrant Life in the U.S., 1820-1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ganguly, Keya. 1992. "Migrant Identities: Personal Memory and the Construction of Selfhood." Cultural Studies 6:27-50.

Geis, Florence L. 1993. "Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: A Social Psychological View of Gender." In Anne E. Beall and Robert J. Sternberg, eds., The Psychology of Gender. New York: Guildford Press.

González, Nancie, and Carolyn McCommon. 1989. Conflict, Migration, and the Expression of Ethnicity. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Hall, Stuart. 1990. "Culture Identity and Diaspora." In Jonathan Rutherford, ed., Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London: Sage, pp. 222-237.

---. 1992. "The Question of Cultural Identity." In Stuart Hall, David Held, and Tony McGrew, eds., Modernity and Its Futures. Cambridge, England: The Open University/Polity Press.

---,and Paul du Gay. 1996. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage.

Hickman, M. J., and Bronwen Walter. 1995. "Deconstructing Whiteness: Irish Women in Britain." Feminist Review 50:5-19.

Hollingsworth, T. H. 1976. "The Statistical Picture of Migration to and from Great Britain." In Franco Angeli, ed., L'emigrazione del bacino mediterraneo verso l'Europa industrializzata. Milan: lnstituto di Demografia dell'Universita di Roma, pp. 113-23.

Holmes, Colin. 1988. john Bull's Island: Immigration and British Society, 1871-1971. London: MacMillan Publishers.

Home Office Statistics of Foreigners Entering and Leaving the United Kingdom. 1971. Parliamentary Papers 1970-1971. vol. XXN, command 4655.

Kutluer-Yalim, Ozden. 1981. "Migrant Women Not Gainfully Employed." International Migration 19 (1-2):210-218.

Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 1985. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.

Leslie, Derek. 1996. The Guardian. August 14.

Ley, Katharina. 1981. "Migrant Women: Is Migration a Blessing or a Handicap? Situation of Migrant Women in Switzerland." International Migration 9:83-93.

Liebkind, Karmela. 1984. Minority Identity and Identification Processes: A

Social Psychological Study. Helsinki, Finland: Societas Scientiarum Fennica.

MacDonald, J.S. and L.D. MacDonald. 1972. The Invisible Immigrants. London: Runnymede Industrial Unit.

Marshall, Barbara L. 1994. Engendering Modernity. Feminism, Social Theory, and Social Change. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.

Mason, David. 1990. "A Rose By Any Other Name ... ? Categorization, Identity and Social Science." New Community 17, 1:123-33.

Miles, Robert. 1982. Racism and Migrant Labor. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

---. 1991. "Migration to Britain: The Significance of a Historical Approach." International Migration 29:527-39.

---. 1984. White Man's Country: Racism in British Politics. London: Pluto Press.

Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. 1986. Panorama de la emigración española en Europa. Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social.

Modood, Tariq. 1988. '"Black' Racial Equality and Asian Identity." New Community 14:397-404.

---. 1992. Not Easy Being British: Colour, Culture, and Citizenship. London: Runnymede Trust and Trentham Books.

Morokvasic, Mirjana. 1983. "Women in Migration: Beyond the Reductionist Outlook." In Annie Phizacklea, ed., One-Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labor. London: Routledge, pp. 13-31.

---,. 1991. "Fortress Europe and Migrant Women." Feminist Review 39:69-84.

Phizacklea, Annie. 1983. "In the Front Line." In Annie Phizacklea, ed., One-Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labor. London: Routledge.

---,. 1988. "Enterpreneurship, Ethnicity and Gender." In Sallie Westwood and Parminder Bhachu, eds., Enterprising Women: Ethnicity, Economy, and Gender Relations. London: Routledge, pp. 21-33.

---, and Robert Miles. 1980. Labour and Racism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Phoenix, Annie. 1994. "Narrow Definitions of Culture: The Case of Early Motherhood." In Mary Evans, ed., The Woman Question. London: Sage, pp. 210-28.

Royce, Anya Peterson. 1982. Ethnic Identity. Strategies of Diversity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Rattansi, Ali, and Sallie Westwood. 1994. "Modern Racisms, Racialised Identities." In Ali Rattansi and Sallie Westwood, eds., Racism, Modernity and identity: On the Western Front. Cambridge, England: Polity Press, pp. 1-12.

Reay, Diane. 1995. "'They Employ Cleaners to Do That': Habitus in the Primary Classroom." British journal of Sociology of Education 16, 1995:353-71.

Rex, John, and David Mason, eds. 1986. Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Rutherford, Jonathan. 1990. "A Place Called Home: Identity and the Cultural Politics of Difference." In Jonathan Rutherford, ed., Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 9-27.

Salt, John. 1976. Migration in Post-War Europe: Geographical Essays. London: Oxford University Press.

Sandlund, Tom. 1976. "Social Classes, Ethnic Groups and Capitalist Development -An Outline of a Theory." Research Report no. 24. Helsinki, Finland: Svenska Litteratursallskapers Namnd for samhallsforskining.

Seller, Maxine Schwartz. 1994. Immigrant Women. Rev., 2d ed. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Serrano Carvajal, Jose, and Alfredo Montoya Melgar. 196 5. La emigración a Europa. Madrid: Instituto Español de Emigración, Ministerio de Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social.

Shweder, Richard A. 1990. "Cultural Psychology, What Is It?" In James W. Stigler, R. A. Shweder, and Gilbert Herdt, eds., Cultural Psychology. Essays on Comparative Human Development. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Unterhalter, Elaine. 1997. "Gendered Diaspora Identities: South African Women, Exile and Migration c. 1960-1995." Unpublished paper.

Weeks, Jeffrey. 1990. "The Value of Difference." In Jonathan Rutherford, ed., Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 88-100.

Weinreich, Peter. 1989. "Variations in Ethnic Identity: Identity Structure Analysis." In Karmela Liebkind, ed., New Identities in Europe. Immigrant Ancestry and the Ethnic Identity of Youth. Aldershot, England: Gower, pp. 171-89.

Wolf, Diane. 1990. "Daughters, Decisions and Domination: An Empirical and Conceptual Critique of Household Strategies." Development and Change 21:43-74.

Yuval-Davis, Nira, and Floya Anthias. 1989. Women, Nation, State. London: Macmillan Publishers.



EL COLEGIO DE LA FRONTERA NORTE
Todos los contenidos publicados en esta revista se encuentran bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.
Licencia de Creative Commons