Percepciones y actitudes en torno a la lengua española en Estados Unidos

María Jesús Criado

Resumen

La creciente importancia de la población hispana en Estados Unidos y la expansión social que en paralelo registra el idioma español se acompaña, como reverso, de una rápida aculturación lingüística de los jóvenes. En esta tendencia, que supone la sustitución y pérdida, más o menos completa, de la lengua vernácula, median diversos factores. Las tendencias uniformadoras, las políticas educativas y los movimientos conservadores, opuestos a la diversidad lingüística, son los más explícitos. Pero también operan, de modo tácito, las imágenes, prejuicios y actitudes vinculadas a las lenguas y a los hablantes. En este artículo se examinan estos factores y se anotan las diversas vertientes que intervienen en este proceso.


ABSTRACT


The increasing importance of the Hispanic population in the United States and the ongoing social expansion that the use of the Spanish language signals is accompanied— in the reverse—with rapid linguistic acculturation among young people. Various factors intervene in this trend, which involves the replacement and almost complete loss of Spanish. Most visible among these factors are the tendency toward uniformity, educational policies, and conservative movements opposed to linguistic diversity. However, images, prejudices, and attitudes connected to the languages and to the speakers also operate tacitly. This article examines these factors and notes the various aspects involved in this process.

Palabras clave: migración internacional; población hispana; bilingüismo; lengua española; Estados Unidos




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Fecha de recepción: 29 de marzo de 2004

Fecha de aceptación: 21 de junio de 2004



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