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La problemática de las categorías raciales en Estados Unidos: El caso de los afrocubanos

C. Alison Newby, Julie A. Dowling

Idioma original:

Resumen

Aunque hay estudios que muestran la adaptación exitosa de los exiliados cubanos en Miami, en ninguno se han examinado las experiencias de los inmigrantes cubanos recientes en lugares de refugiados del suroeste de Estados Unidos. Entre estos inmigrantes cubanos se incluye una gran cantidad de afrocubanos. En áreas donde la mayoría de la población es blanca o de origen mexicano, y donde el grupo de afroestadunidenses es pequeño, la adaptación de los afrocubanos crea confl ictos de identidad cuando luchan por encontrar un lugar en el gran sistema trirracial blanco/negro/café del suroeste. Con base en 45 entrevistas con afrocubanos en Austin y Albuquerque, exploramos la identifi cación racial y étnica de este grupo. Nuestro estudio emplea un enfoque construccionista y explora las formas en que las identidades raciales y étnicas se forman en diálogo con la autoevaluación y con la clasifi cación externa. Los resultados revelan la complejidad de los procesos de identifi cación cuando los afrocubanos intentan mantener su identidad como “cubanos” y como “negros” al oponer resistencia a la clasifi cación diferenciativa de “negro” o “hispano”. Ellos no quieren elegir entre uno y otro término de identifi cación.

 

ABSTRACT


Although studies show the successful adaptation of Cuban exiles in Miami, little research has examined the experiences of recent Cuban immigrants who have settled in refugee relocation sites in the southwestern United States. These recent waves of Cuban immigrants include a large number of Afro-Cubans. In areas where most of the population is of white or Mexican origin, with a much smaller number of African Americans, these Afro-Cubans’s adaptation creates identity confl ict as they struggle to fi nd a place in the white/black/brown tri-racial system of the U.S. southwest. Based on forty-fi ve interviews with Afro-Cubans in Austin and Albuquerque, we explore the racial and ethnic identifi cation of this group. Our study uses a constructionist approach and explores the ways in which racial and ethnic identities are formed through a dialogue between internal self-appraisal and external classifi cation by others. The results reveal the complexity of identifi cation processes as Afro-Cubans attempt to maintain their identifi cation as both “Black” and “Cuban” at the same time as they resist being forced to choose between the external classifi cations of “Black” or “Hispanic.”

Palabras clave: negritud; cubanos; refugiados; latinos; identidad racial-étnica




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Fecha de recepción: 10 de agosto de 2007

Fecha de aceptación: 17 de septiembre de 2007



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