La migración de estudiantes chinos hacia Europa

Christof Van Mol

Idioma original:

Resumen

La experiencia ha demostrado que el capital humano es uno de los factores clave para el desarrollo económico. China tiene una política que intenta incrementar la capacidad intelectual de su población, favoreciendo el retorno de sus estudiantes y profesionales que residen en el extranjero. Una de las características más destacables de la migración de China a Europa ha sido el crecimiento sustancial en el número de migrantes cualificados y estudiantes atraídos sobre todo por Europa del Norte. Se puede considerar la inmigración de estudiantes como precursora de la migración altamente cualificada o como una categoría propia de la migración cualificada. El estudio del movimiento internacional de estudiantes es un fenómeno reciente y debe hacer frente a numerosos problemas metodológicos. En este artículo el autor trata la inmigración de los estudiantes chinos en Europa.


Abstract

Various studies showed that human capital is one of the key factors for economic development. China has a policy which tries to raise their stock of brainpower. One of the most remarkable characteristics of Chinese migration towards Europe is the substantial increase of qualified migrants and students, who are attracted above all by Northern Europe. We can consider student immigration as a precursor to highly skilled migration or as a specific category of highly skilled migration. The research about international student mobility is something recent and still has to deal with many methodological problems. In this article, the author deals with the immigration of Chinese students in Europe.

Palabras clave: Migración internacional; migración altamente cualificada; estudiantes; China; Europa



Texto completo:

Idioma original


Referencias

Abella, M., “Global competition for skilled workers and consequences”, en Kuptsch, C. y E. F. Pang, Competing for Global Talent, Geneva, International Institute for Labour Studies, 2006, pp. 11-32.

Bundesamt für Statistik, Suiza, en .

Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Países Bajos, en .

Cheng Xi, “Non-Remaining and Non-Returning: The Mainland Chinese Students in Japan and Europe since the 1970s”, en P. Nyíri e I. Saveliev, Globalizing Chinese Migration. Trends in

Europe and Asia, Aldershot et Burlington, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005, pp. 158-172.

Chinese Ministry of Education, Annual Work Report 2005. De Standaard, “Meer Chinezen, minder meisjes”, 30 de septiembre de 2003.

_______, “China zendt zijn zonen. Explosieve stijging van Chinese studenten aan Vlaamse universiteiten”, 21 de octubre de 2004.

_______, “Chinese ‘studenten’ spioneren aan Europese universiteiten”, 13 de mayo de 2005.

_______, “Vlaanderen gaat Chinese studenten screenen”, 19 de diciembre de 2006.

_______, “Voorafgaande screening Chinese studenten”, 18 de diciembre de 2006.

Commission des Communautés Européennes, Proposition de directive du conseil relative aux conditions d’entrée et de séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers aux fins d’études de formation professionnelle ou de volontariat, Bruxelles, 7 de octubre de 2002.

Commission of the European Communities, Proposal for a council directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly qualified employment, Brussels, 23 de octubre de 2007.

Eurostat, en .

Higher Education Statistics Agency, Reino Unido, en .

International Centre For Migration Policy Development (icmpd),“Study: Admission of third-country nationals to a eu member state for the purpose of study or vocational training and admission of persons not gainfully employed”, realizado en beneficio de the European Commission, Final Report, agosto, 2002.

International Organization for Migration (iom), World Migration Report 2000, Geneva, 2000.

________, World Migration 2005, Costs and Benefits of International

Migration, Geneva, 2005.

Kuptsch, C. y E. F. Pang, Competing for Global Talent, Geneva, International Institute for Labour Studies, 2006.

________, “Students and talent flow. The case of Europe: from castle to harbour?” en Kuptsch, C. y E. F. Pang, Competing for Global Talent, Geneva, International Institute for Labour Studies, 2006, pp. 33-61.

Laczko, F., “Europe Attracts More Migrants From China”, 2003, en .

Li Minghuan, “A Group in Transition: Chinese Students and Scholars in the Netherlands”, en P. Nyíri e I. Saveliev, Globalizing Chinese Migration. Trends in Europe and Asia, Aldershot y

Burlington, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005, pp. 173-188.

Lowell, B. L., “Skilled Migration Abroad or Human Capital Flight?”, 2003, en .

Mahroum, S., “Highly skilled globetrotters: the international migration of human capital”, en oedc, Mobilising Human Resources for Innovation, oecd Workshop on Science and Technology Labour Markets, pp. 168-185, en , consultado el 17 de mayo de 1999.

Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Francia, en .

Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap Onderwijsstatistieken, Flandes,en .

Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, en .

Murphy, R., Domestic Migrant Remittances in China: Distribution, Channels and Livelihoods, Geneva, International Organization for Migration, 2006.

National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistical Yearbook 2005, Beijing, 2005.

Nyíri, P., “From Class Enemies to Patriots: Overseas Chinese and Emigration Policy and Discourse in the People’s Republic of China”, en P. Nyíri e I. Saveliev, Globalizing Chinese Migration. Trends in Europe and Asia, Aldershot et Burlington, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005, pp. 208-241.

OECD Statistics, en .

Philips, M. y C. Stahl, “International Trade in Higher Education Services in the Asia Pacific Region: Trends and Issues”, en Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 10, 2001, pp. 273-301.

Pieke, F., Recent Trends in Chinese Migration to Europe: Fujianese Migration in Perspective, Geneva, International Organization for Migration, 2002.

Ping, H. y F. Pieke, “China Migration Country Study”, ponencia presentada en la Regional Conference on Migration Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, Dhaka, 22-24 de junio de 2003.

Piore, M., Birds of Passage, Cambridge, University Press, 1979.

Shen, W., Chinese student migration in Europe: a migration that nobody objects to?, documento de trabajo inédito para la Universidad de Ámsterdam, 2007a.

________, Student Migration Between China and Europe. Politics, policy and prospects, memoria preparada para la Loughborough University and Sciences Po Paris, 2007b.

Skeldon, R., “China: From Excepcional Case to Global Participant”, 2004, en .

________, ‘International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 1, 1992, pp. 19-63.

Statistics Belgium, Bélgica, en .

Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland, Alemania, en .

The Economist, “Brazil should try harder. Lula’s disappointing lack of ambition”, London, 383, 2007, p. 14.

Tremblay, K., Student Mobility Between and Towards oecd Countries in 2001. A Comparative Analysis, ocde, 2002.

UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, en .

Wang Gungwu, “Upgrading the Migrant”, en P. Nyíri e I. Saveliev, Globalizing Chinese Migration. Trends in Europe and Asia, Aldershot y Burlington, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2005, pp. 330-337.

Wickramasekara, P., Policy Responses to Skilled Migration: Retention, Return and Circulation, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2003.

Zweig, D., “Learning to compete: China’s efforts to encourage a “reverse brain drain”, en C. Kuptsch y E. F. Pang, Competing for Global Talent, Geneva, International Institute for Labour Studies, 2006, pp. 187-213.

Fecha de recepción: 3 de septiembre de 2007

Fecha de aceptación: 23 de noviembre de 2007



EL COLEGIO DE LA FRONTERA NORTE
Todos los contenidos publicados en esta revista se encuentran bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.
Licencia de Creative Commons