Proposition 187 and Operation Gatekeeper: Cases for the Sociology of International Migrations and Human Rights

Jorge A. Bustamante

Idioma original:

Resumen

Este artículo examina la vulnerabilidad de los inmigrantes como sujetos de derechos humanos. Esta condición de ausencia de poder es analizada en la relación que los inmigrantes establecen con la sociedad receptora en el marco de dos ejercicios de soberanía. Por una parte, la noción clásica de los derechos soberanos que hacen distinciones sociolegales entre nacionales e inmigrantes/extranjeros. Por otra, la noción moderna de soberanía de algunos Estados que se adhieren a los estándares internacionales de losderechos humanos. El artículo se enfoca en el debate acerca de la Proposición 187 y la implementación de la Operación Guardián en la experiencia de inmigrantes mexicanos en los Estados Unidos. En su conclusión, el autor postula que la globalización de la economía conlleva el surgimiento de estándares internacionales, incluidos los de los derechos humanos. Este proceso conduce a la desaparición gradual de la condición de vulnerabilidad de los inmigrantes y a su integración en condiciones de igualdad con los nacionales respecto al Estado y la ley, incluyendo el derecho al voto en elecciones locales.


ABSTRACT


This article examines the vulnerability of immigrants as subjects of human rights. This condition of powerlessness is analyzed in a framework of two exercises of sovereignty within the relationships that immigrants establish with the receiving society. On one hand is the classic notion of sovereign rights, which draws socio-legal distinctions between nationals and immigrants/foreigners. On the other hand is a modern notion of sovereignty accepted by certain States that adhere to international human rightsstandards. The article focuses on the debate about Proposition 187 and the implementation of Operation Gatekeeper in the experience of Mexican immigrants in the United States. In his conclusion, the author postulates that economic globalization brings about the emergence of international standards, including those for human rights. This process leads to the gradual disappearance of immigrants' condition of vulnerability and their integration, under equal status with nationals, in respect to the State and the law, including the right to vote in local elections.

Palabras clave: migración internacional; derechos humanos; soberanía; México; Estados Unidos



Texto completo:

Idioma original


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